what was the sample size for each treatment? Was this sample size appropriate for the design of the experiment? What would have happened if the sample size was smaller

ACTIVITY 4: IDENTIFYING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN A PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE

The New York Times article (“A Simple Device to Detect Concussions”), that you read as part of the Preliminary Activities for the lab, was a summary of an actual scientific study that was performed by a team of researchers led by James Eckner. The Eckner team published their study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, the British Journal of Sports Medicine. In Activity 4, you will read the Eckner article and compare it to the New York Times newspaper summary.

Read: Effect of Sport Related Concussion on Clinically Measured Simple Reaction Time (click here) by Eckner, J.T., Kutcher, J.S., Broglio, S.P., and Richardson, J.K. (2014). British Journal of Sports Medicine 48(2). doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091579

In the Eckner et al. (2014) study, what was the overall scientific question (scientific method step 2)?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the hypothesis (scientific method step 3)?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the dependent variable?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the independent variable?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the experimental group? What was the control group?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the sample size for each treatment? Was this sample size appropriate for the design of the experiment? What would have happened if the sample size was smaller (for example, sample size = 5)?

In the Eckner et al. study, what were controlled variables?In the Eckner et al. study, what were confounding variables?

How does the Eckner et al. (2014) article differ from the New York Times article, “A Simple Device to Detect Concussions”.

Which article is easier to read?

Which article has more detail regarding the concussion study?

Which article is a more reliable source of information? Explain.

What is scientific peer-review? Who are the peer reviewers? What are the responsibilities of the peer reviewers?

If a Medical Doctor (M.D.) or a Doctor of Dentistry (D.D.S.) discussed the concussion study with a colleague, which publication would she/he likely rely upon? Why?

Given that BIOL& 160 students are typically studying to become healthcare professionals who will often be the most direct link between physician and patient, how important is it for BIOL& 160 students to be able to recognize levels of reliability in different forms of scientific communication?

what the signs/symptoms may be each, as well as obtain basic knowledge of the medications that might be used.

Mental Illness

Your children are in school, work is stable and you feel a need to become more active in your community, and try to help others. Your brother was diagnosed with schizophrenia in his teen years and you know how difficult it is.

You contact your local chapter of National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) and they are providing volunteer training to you. Prior however, they ask you to educate yourself on the different types of mental illness, what the signs/symptoms may be each, as well as obtain basic knowledge of the medications that might be used.

Personalize a notebook to refer to as you volunteer for the mentally ill.

Include the following aspects in the project:

·         Access the NAMI site

·         Go to the bottom of the page to access the major types of mental illness

·         Use a Word document to create a notebook

·         Write a chapter for each of these mental illnesses

·         Summarize each type with treatment including medications

·         A simple table may be used for organization

There is no minimum length but thoroughly cover each illness

Where you observed your organism (country, state, park, zoo, etc.)3. A brief discussion on why you chose your organism

Outline on Prairie Dog:

The outline format:  Your outline must be formatted as described and exemplified in the example attached.  Please note that this format will be assessed in your grade:

  • Use an alphanumeric sequence
  • Sections should be indented and aligned
  • Follow the suggested order of the required elements
  • Use brief but detailed and descriptive phrases.

ANIMALS:I. The Introduction SectionA. Organism Introduction1. The common and scientific name of your organism. Please see this link to help with scientific names if needed: How To Write Scientific Names2. Where you observed your organism (country, state, park, zoo, etc.)3. A brief discussion on why you chose your organism4. If possible, a picture and/or video of you safely observing your species in the field. If not possible, search the Internet for an image (and remember to cite your source for the image) in a typical habitat.II. The BodyA. Physical Description1. You must include a brief physical description. You can use your personal observations. If you cannot safely observe your organism, you must research.a. Size, Coloring, etc.B. Life Cycle and Reproduction1. Life Cycle: describe the life cycle of your organism.  The life cycle refers to the series of changes that happens from the beginning of life as your organism develops and grows into a mature organism.  Please see here for some hints on the Life Cycle. If you have any questions please feel free to ask!2. Reproduction: You must discuss the reproductive strategies of your organism (e.g. release of gametes by a fish or hermaphroditic reproduction in earthworms), mate choice, mating displays, mate competition and mating systems.C. Structure and Function1. Please select one organ system of your organism that you find to be particularly interesting and describe both the anatomy and physiology of that system.2. If your organism is an animal, here are a list of the general animal organ systemsD. Energy Ecology1. If you can observe these, that is best. If not, research.2. What are the food sources? Types? Amounts? Temporal pattern of feeding? Specific handling or processing of food items by the organism (e.g. the way a squirrel manipulates an acorn)E. Habitat1. Where your organism lives. This does not refer to a city or state, but rather the natural environment in which your organism lives.2. You should consider abiotic factors, such as soil, water, etc., as well as biotic factors, such as predators, hosts, etc.III. The Conclusion SectionA. This section should contain four to six points that sum up the main points from the body of the outline.B. Start your conclusive section with one sentence summarizing some basic information about your chosen organism (name and geographical distribution).C. Continue with a brief summary (1-2 sentences) about the life cycle and any particular body structures.D. Include a brief summary (1-2 sentences) about the ecological role of your chosen organism in its ecosystem.E. Wrap up the conclusive section with a closing note that provides brief information about a unique fact and/or behavior of your chosen organism.IV. The Reference Section:  A. This is not just the reference page; rather, referencing should occur throughout the outline as it will in your presentation.  Therefore, your outline should include both a separate reference page containing a minimum of five sources listed in proper APA reference list format AND internal citations throughout the outline where appropriate.  Please be sure to see the resources below for assistance regarding in-text citations and reference list formatting, and/or ask me if you have any additional questions.

Explain what occurs in the overall equation for Aerobic Glucose metabolism ?

1. What is the role of ATP in Respiration (Catabolism and Anabolism)?

2. Explain what occurs in the overall equation for Aerobic Glucose metabolism ?

3. List the 10 steps of Glycolysis (include reactants and products).  Identify which steps are involved in Energy Investment and which steps are involved in Energy Payoff?  Note which steps involve a transfer of Energy?

4. What are the final products of Glycolysis?

5. Explain what occurs in Pyruvate processing.

6. List the steps of the Krebs/TCA cycle and indicate which steps involve an energy transfer and release of CO2.

7. What are the end products of the TCA cycle?

8. Explain how ATP is generated in the Electron Transport Chain.

9. What is the difference between Oxidative and Substrate level phosphorylation?

10. What is the ATP yield from Glycolysis, Pyruvate processing, TCA cycle?  Overall maximum theoretical yield from complete oxidation of one molecule of Glucose?

11. What occurs in Fermentation pathways?  What is the energy yield and where does it come from?

based on what you know about E-cigarettes from the reading and your own research, defend or oppose the regulation of vaping products as traditional cigarettes.

Instructions

In the mid-1950s, the first study linking cigarette smoking to lung cancer was published. In the decades that followed, many other studies supported this finding, and a host of other health-related effects attributed to smoking were uncovered.

Over the last few decades, cities and states have created local regulations prohibiting smoking in certain public places. In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was given the regulatory authority of all tobacco products.

Chapter 20 of your textbook begins with a comparison of two sources of inhalable nicotine: traditional tobacco cigarettes and E-cigarettes. Because E-cigarettes are a relatively new technology, less is known about the long-term effects of firsthand and secondhand inhalation of vaping products. However, in recent years they have been treated and regulated similarly to traditional cigarettes. Your assignment for this unit is to create a 10- to 12-slide PowerPoint presentation that covers the following elements:

  • the anatomy and physiology of respiration (e.g., explain how breathing works);
  • the effects of the inhalation of smoke and E-cigarette vapor on gas exchange in the lungs;
  • specific diseases associated with smoking, both pulmonary and cardiovascular; and
  • lastly, based on what you know about E-cigarettes from the reading and your own research, defend or oppose the regulation of vaping products as traditional cigarettes.

PowerPoint slides should not contain a lot of text; use speaker notes to provide the details of your presentation. The general practice is to use no more than 5-6 bullet points per slide. The quality and depth of your speaker’s notes will be significantly factored into your grade.Title and reference slides should be included. These do not count toward the 10- to 12-slide requirement. In addition to providing references on a reference slide, you need to cite your material in the slides as appropriate; use APA format for your references and citations.

Suggestions for Searching for Illustrations

Use at least 3 images in the presentation. When looking for illustrations to use, it is suggested that you type the subject into a search engine and click “images.” For your presentation, you are allowed to copy and paste images (being sure to cite and reference them). However, you are NOT allowed to copy and paste content, such as text, tables, and the like. As much as possible, your presentation needs to be in your own words.

The purpose of this assignment is to complete your academic argumentative research paper.

Instructions

Conclusion and Abstract

Follow the directions below for the completion of the conclusion and abstract assignment for Unit VIII. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to complete your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will first write your conclusion; then, you will write your abstract. The following components are requirements of the assignment:

  • Conclusion (150-200 words):
  • Abstract (200 words or less): For this assignment, you may not exceed 200 words.
  • Add the conclusion and abstract to the rest of your paper so that you are turning in a complete research paper. The paper should include all of the following components (in order):

Example: Click here to access a full version of the partial paper shared in the assignment instructions in Units VI and VII. This is a real student example. It is not a perfect example for all grammar, syntax, or APA, though it is in very good shape. The goal of viewing this example should be to see the overall structure and content.

Explain the situation, what was told to you, what the truth was, how you uncovered it, and how finding out that you were misled made you feel.

Start by reading and following these instructions:

1. Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.

2. Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.

3. Consider the discussion and any insights you gained from it.

4. Create your Assignment submission and be sure to cite your sources, use APA style as required, check your spelling.

Assignment:

Identify a social issue you are strongly opposed to. Then use the 4 stasis questions on page 22 of the textbook to dive deeper into the topic in a way that builds a solid argument.

*Stasis questions on page 22:

1) How does popular culture stereotype you?

2) How does what we eat define who we are?

3) How does language influence our world?

4) Has the Internet destroyed privacy?

5) How free should campus speech be?

Think about a time when you believed an emotional appeal put forth by a political party, company, marketing campaign, or piece of advertising only to find out that you were not quite told the truth. Explain the situation, what was told to you, what the truth was, how you uncovered it, and how finding out that you were misled made you feel. Also explain if, or how, this experience changed how you view arguments put in front of you.

Imagine you are the marketing director for a company that makes fruit snacks for kids. The snacks aren’t so much fruit as they are sugar, water, and artificial dyes; but kids love them and they are individually wrapped for ease of use by busy parents. Your company needs to increase sales by 50% in the next quarter and your boss has put this burden on you. Write copy for a print ad to run in “Mom’s World” magazine that uses an emotional appeal to get busy moms to buy your product and give it to their children.

Select someone from the entertainment industry who is famous on an international scale. Then find a charity with characteristics that match that person’s character and ethos. Write the text for a print ad that would feature the performer talking about why the charity is important. Also include why you chose the person and charity you did, and why you feel they share an ethos.

Identify a social issue you are strongly opposed to. Then use the 4 stasis questions on page 22 of the textbook to dive deeper into the topic in a way that builds a solid argument.

Start by reading and following these instructions:

1. Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.

2. Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.

3. Consider the discussion and the any insights you gained from it.

4. Create your Assignment submission and be sure to cite your sources, use APA style as required, check your spelling.

Assignment:

Identify a social issue you are strongly opposed to. Then use the 4 stasis questions on page 22 of the textbook to dive deeper into the topic in a way that builds a solid argument.

*Stasis questions on page 22:

1) How does popular culture stereotype you?

2) How does what we eat define who we are?

3) How does language influence our world?

4) Has the Internet destroyed privacy?

5) How free should campus speech be?

Think about a time when you believed an emotional appeal put forth by a political party, company, marketing campaign, or piece of advertising only to find out that you were not quite told the truth. Explain the situation, what was told to you, what the truth was, how you uncovered it, and how finding out that you were misled made you feel. Also explain if, or how, this experience changed how you view arguments put in front of you.

Imagine you are the marketing director for a company that makes fruit snacks for kids. The snacks aren’t so much fruit as they are sugar, water, and artificial dyes; but kids love them and they are individually wrapped for ease of use by busy parents. Your company needs to increase sales by 50% in the next quarter and your boss has put this burden on you. Write copy for a print ad to run in “Mom’s World” magazine that uses an emotional appeal to get busy moms to buy your product and give it to their children.

Select someone from the entertainment industry who is famous on an international scale. Then find a charity with characteristics that match that person’s character and ethos. Write text for a print ad that would feature the performer talking about why the charity is important. Also include why you chose the person and charity you did, and why you feel they share an ethos.

To demonstrate understanding of how arguments are created through the three appeals and the mechanisms within each that develop the appeal.

In a 1,500+word response students will analyze the rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos, logos) and how these develop the claim and appeal to the intended audience of the student’s selected text (text selections are below).

Geraghty, Jim. “What is the Right Level of Fear for Living during a Pandemic?” nationalreview.com, 24 Aug. 2020, National Review, https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/what-is-the-right    level-of-fear-for-living-during-a-pandemic/. Accessed <enter your date>.

Purpose: To demonstrate understanding of how arguments are created through the three appeals and the mechanisms within each that develop the appeal.

Your Primary MOD: Division Analysis—writing that isolates individual writing strategies.

Tone: Objective (no first person or opinions unless in introduction and/or conclusion)

MINIMUM Length: 1,500+ words

Submission Format: MLA; electronic submission to Canvas

Additional Notes: As students of ENGL 1302, your primary goal is to understand how arguments work and, later, to create your own. You’ve taken the first step to achieving this in exploring compositional basics—how writing and a thesis develop and why an author makes the choices he or she does. Now, you will take it to the next level, analyzing how compositional strategies create the appeals and how the appeals, overall, strengthen or weaken the argument.

  • The response is NOT about the article’s topic
  • The response is NOT about your opinion re: the topic.
  • Write from the perspective of the learned student exploring what rhetorical strategies the author employs to create his/her argument and develop a successful thesis/message for the intended audience (The New York Times, The Atlantic Monthly, or com).
  • Remember: you are not likely the intended audience; the original publication of the piece indicates the intended audience.

Basic Structure of an Analytical Response (Rhetorical Analysis)

The Roman numerals below are suggested “movements” in your response and may or may not indicate paragraphs.

I. Introduction: Introductions greet your reader into your response. Students are encouraged to begin with a colorful “hook”—one to three sentences that instantly engage the reader via the topic of the article analyzed and/or the purpose of analysis.

II. Introduction of Article & Context: When analyzing a text, you need to fully introduce it:

  • Title
  • Author—who is she/he? Consider establishing credibility of author.
  • Audience—who is this piece for? You can establish this by researching the original publication, the types of readers the author aims to reach. This information can be noted on this prompt sheet.
  • The Author’s Thesis/Claim—the word “thesis” is often not a favorite of students. There are several reasons why. A composition’s thesis requires students to fully explore a composition and then determine what it’s about.
  • Your Thesis—Your thesis, as the student, is roughly: author’s thesis/claim + appeals that create the argument.Again, the aspects explored by students will vary. Each student’s thesis will be unique. Regardless, the student’s thesis signals to the reader what the student’s analysis will investigate—i.e. a close look at an author’s rhetorical strategies.

III-V. The Body Paragraphs: In the “body paragraphs,” this is where the student dives into theHOW and WHY an appeal is employed by the author. In each “body paragraph” the student needs to:

  • Identify and define (in your own words) the appeal (ethos, pathos, logos) analyzed
  • Provide evidence directly from text
  • Detail what the evidence represents—an MOD? Hostile tone? Citation of authority? Authorial expertise?
  • Discuss how this creates/develop the appeal (MOD=logos; Hostile tone=pathos; Citation of authority=logos/ethos; Authorial expertise; ethos/logos)
  • Discuss how this appeal creates/backs the author’s persuasive thesis
  • Why is this particular appeal effective/ineffective with the intended audience?
  • Consider how this appeal/strategy relates to the others the student will focus upon.

VI. Conclusion

Conclusions are often taught in essay writing to be a recap of the response. Yet, as you are writing a brief response of 3-5 pages (at most), your reader need not be reminded of what he/she read. Rather, end your analysis on a more poignant and/or personal note. As an ENGL 1302 student, you should constantly be thinking about the persuasive air around you and the direct arguments challenged your way: how do you feel about them?

How many gigs did the Miles Davis Nonette of the Birth of Cool sessions actually play and where?

Give a short answer to each question (Use whole sentences!) 1-10.

1. The reading lists three qualities that can be used to describe and categorize “cool” jazz. What are they?

2. What Qualities are listed as “things to listen for” when hearing Miles Davis’ Boplicity off of the Birth of Cool album.

3. How many gigs did the Miles Davis Nonette of the Birth of Cool sessions actually play and where?

4. John Lewis played in the Birth of Cool sessions and went on to lead and spend the majority of his recording career with what group?

5. The Dave Brubeck Quartet’s big hit was what and what was the name of the album it was on?

6. Gerry Mulligan and Chet Baker are noted “west coast cool” musicians. They have some notoriety today for what their group didn’t have. What was it and what did that do?

7. Who is Stan Getz and what style (or genre) is he credited with popularizing and bringing to jazz?

8. Who sang the female, English vocals in “The Girl from Ipanema”?

9. Was there an actual “Girl from Ipanema”? If so, what was her name?

10. You have listened to several cool jazz tunes over the course of this unit. Describe the cool sound in general and give some opinions on what you think of the style. (What did you like or not like about it? Which artist did enjoy the most or least and why? Etc….)