Sociological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood
As individuals transition into young and middle adulthood, they make important lifestyle decisions. These may include decisions about whom to marry or whether to marry at all. They may include decisions about whether to have children or about how to take care of elderly relatives. The decisions adults make in the young and middle adulthood life-span phase affect the new roles they assume, such as parent, spouse, significant other, or caregiver. Life changes may occur that require adults to adapt these roles, for example, to stepparent, widow, or divorcee.
This week, you explore the sociological aspects of young and middle adulthood. You consider the complexity of family systems as well as the macro systems that affect families. You also focus on poverty’s critical impact on family systems.
Zastrow, C. H., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2016). Understanding human behavior and the social environment (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Chapter 12, “Sociological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood” (pp. 549-616)
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014). Sessions: Case histories. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
“The Hernandez Family” (pp. 3–5)
The Hernandez Family
Juan Hernandez (27) and Elena Hernandez (25) are a married Latino couple who were referred to the New York City Administration for Children Services (ACS) for abuse allegations. They have an 8-year-old son, Juan Jr., and a 6-year-old son, Alberto. They were married 7 years ago, soon after Juan Jr. was born. Juan and Elena were both born in Puerto Rico and raised in Queens, New York. They rent a two-bedroom apartment in an apartment complex where they have lived for 7 years. Elena works as babysitter for a family that lives nearby, and Juan works at the airport in the baggage department. Overall, their physical health is good, although Elena was diagnosed with diabetes this past year and Juan has some lower back issues from loading and unloading bags. Both drink socially with friends and family. Juan goes out with friends on the weekends sometimes to “blow off steam,” having six to eight beers, and Elena drinks sparingly, only one or two drinks a month. Both deny any drug use at all. While they do not attend church regularly, both identify as being Catholic and observe all religious holidays. Juan was arrested once as a juvenile for petty theft, but that has been expunged from his file. Elena has no criminal history. They have a large support network of friends and family who live nearby, and both Elena’s and Juan’s parents live within blocks of their apartment and visit frequently. Juan and Elena both enjoy playing cards with family and friends on the weekends and taking the boys out to the park and beach near their home.
ACS was contacted by the school social worker from Juan Jr.’s school after he described a punishment his parents used when he talked back to them. He told her that his parents made him kneel for hours while holding two encyclopedias (one in each hand) and that this was a punishment used on multiple occasions. The ACS worker deemed this a credible concern and made a visit to the home. During the visit, the parents admitted to using this particular form of punishment with their children when they misbehaved. In turn, the social worker from ACS mandated the family to attend weekly family sessions and complete a parenting group at their local community mental health agency. In her report sent to the mental health agency, the ACS social worker indicated that the form of punishment used by the parents was deemed abusive and that the parents needed to learn new and appropriate parenting skills. She also suggested they receive education about child development because she believed they had unrealistic expectations of how children at their developmental stage should behave. This was a particular concern with Juan Sr., who repeatedly stated that if the boys listened, stayed quiet, and followed all of their rules they would not be punished. There was a sense from the ACS worker that Juan Sr. treated his sons, especially Juan Jr., as adults and not as children. This was exhibited, she believed, by a clear lack of patience and understanding on his part when the boys did not follow all of his directions perfectly or when they played in the home. She mandated family sessions along with the parenting classes to address these issues.
During the intake session, when I met the family for the first time, both Juan and Elena were clearly angry that they had been referred to parenting classes and family sessions. They both felt they had done nothing wrong, and they stated that they were only punishing their children as they were punished as children in Puerto Rico. They said that their parents made them hold heavy books or other objects as they kneeled and they both stressed that at times the consequences for not behaving had been much worse. Both Juan and Elena were “beaten” (their term) by their parents. Elena’s parents used a switch, and Juan’s parents used a belt. As a result, they feel they are actually quite lenient with their children, and they said they never hit them and they never would. Both stated that they love their children very much and struggle to give them a good life. They both stated that the boys are very active and don’t always follow the rules and the kneeling punishment is the only thing that works when they “don’t want to listen.”
They both admitted that they made the boys hold two large encyclopedias for up to two hours while kneeling when they did something wrong. They stated the boys are “hyperactive” and “need a lot of attention.” They said they punish Juan Jr. more often because he is particularly defiant and does not listen and also because he is older and should know better. They see him as a role model for his younger brother and feel he should take that responsibility to heart. His misbehavior indicates to them that he is not taking that duty seriously and therefore he should be punished, both to learn his lesson and to show his younger brother what could happen if he does not behave.
During the intake meeting, Juan Sr. stated several times that he puts in overtime any time he can because money is “tight.” He expressed great concern about having to attend the parenting classes and family sessions, as it would interfere with that overtime. Elena appeared anxious during the initial meeting and repeatedly asked if they were going to lose the boys. I told her I could not assure her that they would not, but I could assist her and her husband through this process by making sure we had a plan that satisfied the ACS worker’s requirements. I told them it would be up to them to complete those plans successfully. I offered my support through this process and conveyed empathy around their response to the situation.
The Hernandez Family
Juan Hernandez: father, 27
Elena Hernandez: mother, 25
Juan Hernandez Jr.: son, 8
Alberto Hernandez: son, 6
Together we discussed the plan for treatment, following the requirements of ACS; they would attend a 12-week Positive Parenting Program (PPP) along with weekly family sessions. In an effort to reduce some of the financial burden of attending multiple meetings at the agency, I offered to meet with the family either just before or immediately after the PPP so that they did not have to come to the agency more than once a week. They agreed that this would be helpful because they did not have money for multiple trips to the agency, although Juan Sr. stated that this would still affect his ability to work overtime on that day. I asked if they had any goals they wanted to work toward during our sessions. Initially they were reluctant to share anything, and then Elena suggested that a discussion on money management would be helpful. I told them I would be their primary contact at the agency—meeting with them for the family sessions and co-facilitating the PPP group with an intern. I explained my limitations around confidentiality, and they signed a form acknowledging that I was required to share information about our sessions with the ACS worker. I informed them that the PPP is an evidenced-based program and explained its meaning. I informed them that there is a pre- and post-test administered along with the program and specific guidelines about missed classes. They were informed that if they missed more than three classes, their participation would be deemed incomplete and they would not get their PPP certification.
Initially, when the couple attended parenting sessions and family sessions, Juan Sr. expressed feelings of anger and resentment for being mandated to attend services at the agency. Several times he either refused to participate by remaining quiet or spoke to the social worker and intern in a demeaning manner. He did this by questioning our ability to teach the PPP and the effectiveness of the program itself, wanting to know how this was going to make him a better parent. He also reiterated his belief that his form of discipline worked and that it was exactly what his family members used for years on him and his relatives. He asked, “If it worked for them, why can’t that form of punishment work for me and my children?” He emphasized that these were his children. He maintained throughout the sessions that he never hit his children and never would. Both he and Elena often talked about their love for their children and the devastation they would feel if they were ever taken away from them.
Treatment consisted of weekly parenting classes with the goal of teaching them effective and safe discipline skills (such as setting limits through the use of time-out and taking away privileges). Further, the classes emphasized the importance of recognizing age-appropriate behavior. We spent sessions reviewing child development techniques to help boost their children’s self-esteem and sense of confidence. We also talked about managing one’s frustration (such as when to take a break when angry) and helping their children to do the same.
Family sessions were built around helping the family members express themselves in a safe environment. The parents and the children were asked to talk about how they felt about each other and the reason they were mandated to treatment. They were asked to share how they felt while at home interacting with one another. I thought it was of particular importance to have them talk about their feelings related to the call to ACS, as I was unsure how Juan Sr. felt about Juan Jr.’s report to the social worker. It was necessary to assist them with processing this situation so that there were no residual negative feelings between father and son. I asked them to role-play—having each member act like another member of the household. This was very effective in helping Juan Sr. see how his boys view him and his behavior toward them when he comes home from work. As a result of this exercise, he verbalized his newfound clarity around how the boys have been seeing him as a very angry and negative father.
I also used sessions to explore the parents’ backgrounds. Using a genogram, we identified patterns among their family members that have continued through generations. These patterns included the use of discipline to maintain order in the home and the potentially unrealistic expectations the elders had for their children and grandchildren. Elena stated that she was treated like an adult and had the responsibilities of a person much older than herself while she was still very young. Juan Sr. said he felt responsible for bringing money into the home at an early age. He was forced by his parents to get working papers as soon as he turned 14. His paychecks were then taken by his parents each week and used to pay for groceries and other bills. He expressed anger at his parents for encouraging him to drop out of high school so that he could get more than one job to help out with the finances.
Other sessions focused on the burden they felt related to their finances and how that burden might be felt by the boys, just as Juan Sr. might have felt growing up. In one session, Juan Jr. expressed his fears of being evicted and the lights being turned off, because his father often talked of not having money for bills. Both boys expressed sadness over the amount of time their father spent at work and stressed their desire to do more things with him at night and on the weekends. Both parents stated they did not realize the boys understood their anxieties around paying bills and felt sad that they worried about these issues. We also took a couple of sessions to address money management. We worked together to create a budget and identify unnecessary expenses that might be eliminated.
Key to Acronyms
ACS: Administration for Children Services
PPP: Positive Parenting Program
It was clear that this was a family that loved each other very much. Juan Sr. and Elena were often affectionate with each other and their sons. Once the initial anger subsided, both Juan Sr. and Elena fully engaged in both the family sessions and the PPP. We assessed their progress monthly and highlighted that progress. I also was aware that it was important to learn about the Hernandez family history and culture in order to understand their perspective and emotions around the ACS referral. I asked them many questions about their beliefs, customs, and culture to learn about how they view parenthood, marriage roles, and children’s behaviors. They were always open to these questions and seemed pleased that I asked about these things rather than assumed I knew the answers.
During the course of treatment they missed a total of four PPP classes. I received a call from Elena each time letting me know that Juan Sr. had to work overtime and they would miss the class. She was always apologetic and would tell me she would like to know what they missed in the class so that she could review it on her own. During a call after the fourth missed parenting class, I reminded Elena that in order to obtain the certificate of completion, they were expected to attend a minimum of nine classes. By missing this last class, I explained, they were not going to get the certificate. Elena expressed fear about this and asked if there was any way they could still receive it. She explained that they only had one car and that she had to miss the classes when Juan Sr. could not go because she had no way of getting to the agency on her own. I told her that I did not have the authority to change the rules around the number of classes missed and that I understood how disappointed she was to hear they would not get the certificate. When I told her I had to call the ACS worker and let her know, Elena got very quiet and started to cry. I spoke with her for a while, and we talked about the possible repercussions.
I met with my supervisor and informed her of what had occurred. I knew I had to tell the ACS worker that they would not receive the certificate of completion this round, and I felt bad for the situation Juan Sr. and Elena and their boys were now in. I had been meeting with them for family sessions and parenting classes for almost three months by this point and had built a strong rapport. I feared that once I called the ACS worker, that rapport would be broken and they would no longer want to work with me. I saw them as loving and caring parents who were trying the best they could to provide for their family. They had been making progress, particularly Juan Sr., and I did not want their work to be in vain.
I also questioned whether the parenting and family sessions were really necessary for their situation. I felt there was a lack of cultural competence on the part of the ACS worker—she had made some rather judgmental and insensitive comments on the phone to me during the referral. I wondered if there was a rush to judgment on her part because their form of discipline was not commonly used in the United States. In my own professional opinion, some time-limited education on parenting and child development would have sufficed, as opposed to the 3-month parenting program and family sessions.
My supervisor and I also discussed the cultural competence at the agency and the fact that the class schedule may not fit a working family’s life. We discussed bringing this situation to a staff meeting to strategize and see if we had the resources to offer the PPP multiple times during the week, perhaps allowing clients to make up a class on a day other than their original class day.
I met with Elena and Juan Sr. and let them know I had to contact the ACS worker about the missed classes. I explained that this was something I had to do by law. They told me they understood, although another round of parenting classes would be a financial burden and they had already struggled to attend the current round of classes each week. I validated their concerns and told them we were going to look at offering the program more than once a week. I also told them that when I spoke to the ACS worker, I would also highlight their progress in family and parenting sessions.
I called the ACS worker and told her all the positive progress the parents had made over the previous 3 months before letting her know that they had missed too many classes to obtain the PPP certificate. The ACS worker was pleased with the progress I described but said she would recommend to her supervisor that the parents take the PPP over again until a certificate was obtained. She would wait to hear what her supervisor’s decision was on this matter. She said that family sessions could end at this point. In the end, the supervisor decided the parents needed to come back to the agency and just make up the four classes they missed. Elena and Juan Sr. were able to complete this requirement and received their certificate, and the ACS case was closed. They later returned on their own for a financial literacy class newly offered at the agency free of charge.
Park, K., & Yang, T. (2017). The long-term effects of self-esteem on depression: The role of alcohol and substance use during young adulthood. The Sociological Quarterly, 58(3), 429–446.
Sutin, A. R., & Costa, P. T. (2010). Reciprocal influences of personality and job characteristics across middle adulthood. Journal of Personality, 78(1), 257–288.
Poverty in Young and Middle Adulthood
Poverty has a strong influence on the lives of adults. When an adult lives in poverty, the effects extend beyond that individual to all those who depend on the adult. The problem of poverty in the life of an adult becomes a family or community problem, and few social problems are more impactful than poverty.
As a social worker, you are likely to address the needs of clients whose adverse circumstances are strongly influenced by poverty. Increasing your understanding of poverty and its influence will equip to you to better understand and assist your clients.
As you read this week’s resources, select the theory of poverty that most resonates with you to address in your Discussion post for this week.
By Day 3
Post a Discussion that includes the following:
- An explanation of how poverty impacts the experience of individuals in young and middle adulthood
- A statement as to whether you think poverty is the result of cultural or individual. characteristics; provide support for your position
- An answer to the following questions about the theory of poverty you selected:
- What aspects of this theory would be most suitable for your practice? Why?
- What aspects of this theory do you find problematic in terms of your knowledge of social work practice? Explain.
By Day 5
Read a selection of your colleagues’ posts.
Respond to at least two colleagues in one of the following ways:
- Critique your colleague’s explanation of how poverty impacts individuals in young and middle adulthood.
- State whether you agree or disagree with your colleague’s position on whether poverty is the result of cultural or individual characteristics. Provide support for your position.
- Reply to a colleague who selected a theory of poverty that differs from the one you selected by critiquing his or her evaluation of the theory.
As you have been exploring human behavior and the social environment, you have likely increased your awareness of the many biological, psychological, and sociological factors that affect individual behavior. Human relationships are complex, and social workers may find it difficult to keep these important interactions in mind when addressing a client’s needs. Murray Bowen (as cited in Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016, p. 595) developed the genogram, a tool to help social workers and other practitioners create a record of family relationships. Once a social worker creates a genogram for a client, he or she may refer to it when analyzing the client’s situation.
To prepare for this Assignment, become familiar with how to create a genogram, which is presented in this week’s resources. Also, review this week’s media about Juan and Elena Hernandez’s visit with their social worker.
By Day 7
Submit a 2- to 4-page paper that includes the following:
- A genogram of the Hernandez family
- An analysis of the Hernandez family’s case based on the genogram including the following information.
- Identify an element of the Hernandez family’s case that may influence the way Juan and Elena Hernandez address their issue with the social worker.
- Explain how the genogram you created might help you address the needs of the Hernandez family.
- Tarsha Smith-Cook RE: Discussion – Week 4COLLAPSE
Poverty impacts the experience of individuals in young and middle adulthood. The text tells us that poverty is passed from generation to generation. It is very difficult for children to escape circumstances of childhood poverty. So, it is very likely that parents who have children and raise them in poverty that their children will most likely be in that same income poverty bracket themselves as adults (Zastrow, 2016). When they grow up and enter into adulthood, they most likely remain in the same impoverished neighborhoods with limited resources and opportunities for employment and success. “The poor lack the freedom and autonomy…they are trapped by their surroundings, living in rundown, crime-ridden neighborhoods that they cannot afford to leave.” (Zastrow, 2016) The text also states that the poor are constantly confronted with things they desire to have but have little chance to own. Thus, the poor can’t help but feel inferior and inadequate (Zastrow, 2016).
With that being said, I think my stance on poverty is that it is a combination of cultural and individual characteristics and choices. Social problems such as addiction, unemployment, racial and sexual discrimination, medical and emotional problems, gambling, cognitive disabilities and crime are all contributing causes of poverty (Zastrow, 2016). And then on the flip side, poverty is the cause of some of these social problems (Zastrow, 2016). While poverty often leads to despair, low self-esteem, and stunting physical, social, emotional and intellectual growth, as well as feelings of inferiority, one does have a role to play in the micro, mezzo, and macro systems that supports and nurtures poverty. The culture of poverty forms after extended periods of economic deprivation which leads to the development of attitudes and values of despair and hopelessness (Zastrow, 2016). It is important to understand that Individuals within this culture have an established mindset and feelings of fatalism, helplessness, dependence, and inferiority. They have a strong sense of present time and do not delay instant gratifications or plan for the future (Zastrow, 2016). And once this culture and mindset is developed, it continues to exist and limits ones opportunities and prevent their escape, even though the economic factors that created it, such as unemployment, low salaries, etc, are no present. They have become socially isolated, have few contacts with groups outside their own culture and are hostile to the institutions that might be able to help them escape (Zastrow, 2016).
So, for me, I would use a combination of the culture of poverty and conflict theories in my practice because I believe poverty is a result of micro, mezzo, and macro systems at play. Mezzo and macro systems such as employers, government, and politics which is controlled by the collective rich form and allow a system to keep the rich rich and poor poor. The poor are being exploited, being paid poverty-level wages so that their employers can reap higher profits (Zastrow, 2016). Wealthy employers also oppose programs to reduce unemployment because they don’t want to pay the taxes. Then there is the wealthy in general who ignore the economic and political foundations of poverty and instead just get involved in charitable efforts for the poor. But this only further perpetuates poverty and economic equality (Zastrow, 2016). And on a micro level, individuals are accepting their fate even after some of the barriers that hindered them and put them in poverty are removed. Their mindset does not change to a confident one that says, I will now get a better paying job and leave this neighborhood. They keep the self-defeating mindset caused by the macro and mezzo systems at work. And this is in line with the conflict theory as well that says that many poor people eventually come to accept the judgements passed on them by the rest of society and adjust their aspirations and self-esteem downward (Zastrow, 2016).
Ashley Burk RE: Discussion – Week 4COLLAPSE
The effects of poverty are felt throughout a lifetime. According to Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2016), around 15 percent of the U.S. population lives below the poverty line. Poverty in the U.S. is also increasing, and people technically above poverty are living in similar conditions as those considered in poverty (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). The majority of those living in poverty are one-parent households, children, older adults, people of color, large families, and the homeless (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Adults in poverty do not have the financial resources to meet the basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing, so they live in substandard housing with vermin, no running water, have inadequate nutrition, lower quality healthcare, and live in high crime areas (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Infant mortality is also higher with women living in poverty, almost double the rate of their more affluent peers (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Poverty stricken neighborhoods have lower quality educational facilities, programs, and faculty and those born into poverty are likely to never reach a higher socioeconomic status than their parents (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Poverty affects every aspect of a person’s life. There is a lower life expectancy due to a lifetime of poor diet, substandard healthcare and housing, and limited educational opportunities.
Poverty is cultural. Individuals living in poverty are not offered the same educational opportunities, the caliber of healthcare, house, and job skills as those in more affluent areas. Being able to communicate and socialize with others effectively are essential life skills taught when survival is not the focus of family and community life (Adams, Blumenfeld, Catalano, Dejong, Hackman, Hopkins, Love, Peters, Shlasko, & Zuniga, 2018). Those skills are needed to make the right impression when interviewing for jobs and advancement. The way the federal government structured mortgages and housing zones after WWII was designed to keep neighborhoods segregated and people of color trying to leave decaying urban areas for the suburbs found it all but impossible (Adams et al., 2018). These are societal and cultural faults; not individuals are given equal opportunities failing to take advantage of those opportunities. As a society, the United States has made no significant strides to ending poverty since the short-lived War on Poverty.
Conflict theory sees society as involved in a power struggle between different social groups (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). This theory states poverty still exists because the wealthy who can most directly influence the political climate want it to survive because it serves their self-interest (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). I do not believe the wealthy want it to exist so much as they resist the redistribution of income necessary for poverty to cease to exist. It is much easier to think it is the individual’s fault for not trying hard enough or not doing enough than to own that without businesses paying a living wage poverty is going to be a continuing social problem. This theory highlights some societal issues occur because of the struggle to hoard resources (i.e., power, money, and fame) not due to an inherent difference between people of different social groups (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). This theory provides a perspective of dealing with social problems in the political arena. This is a theory offers a framework for social workers and clients to collaborate to make changes in policy. It also helps social workers point out that they are not living in poverty because they are not smart enough or working hard enough but because they were not afforded the same opportunities as some others. This is a way to open the door to educate clients about life skills that are needed to succeed in interviews and job advancement. This theory can also be misused to absolve clients of responsibility. While there are fewer opportunities for those living in poverty, individuals have to take advantage of the opportunities there are. Graduating high school, researching scholarship opportunities for college or trade school, and avoiding criminal activities are the responsibility of the individual. There are a variety of ways to work for something better but changing a fatalist mindset is the first step because if an individual does not believe they will succeed they will not because they will not try.